Ticketing companies, self-ticketing venues, event promoters and Australian Major Performing
Arts Group (AMPAG) companies (“Ticketing Survey data”)
For this Survey, EY compiled data from ticketing companies, self-ticketing venues, event promoters and
AMPAG companies. The survey participants were as follows:
- Adelaide Festival Centre Trust
- Araluen Centre for Arts & Entertainment NT
- The Arts Centre (Melbourne)
- Arts Projects Australia (WOMAdelaide)
- Brisbane Powerhouse
- Canberra Ticketing
- Cirque du Soleil
- Darwin Entertainment Centre
- Adelaide Fringe
- Hayes Theatre Co
- Melbourne Recital Centre
- The Ticket Group (previously Moshtix and Foxtix)
- Queensland Performing Arts Centre (Qtix)
- Sydney Opera House
EY compiled data from the Australia Council for the Arts (Key Organisations) to collect revenue data for
small to medium companies and the Australian Performing Arts Centres Association (APACA) to get a clearer
representation of regional and metropolitan venues.
Key Organisations (Australia Council for the Arts)
- Arena Theatre Company
- Australian Art Orchestra
- Australian Children’s Performing Arts Co t/a Windmill Theatre Company
- Australian Dance Theatre
- Australian String Quartet
- Australian Theatre for Young People
- Back to Back Theatre
- Barking Gecko Theatre Company
- Brink Productions
- Canberra Symphony Orchestra
- Chunky Move
- Dance North
- Darwin Symphony Orchestra
- Ensemble Offspring
- Expressions Dance Company
- Force Majeure
- Gondwana Choirs
- Griffin Theatre Company
- HotHouse Theatre Limited
- Ilbijerri Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Theatre Co-op
- Just Us Theatre Ensemble
- Kage Physical Theatre Association
- La Boite Theatre Company
- La Mama Theatre Company
- Legs On The Wall
- Lucy Guerin Association
- Milk Crate Theatre
- PACT Centre for Emerging Artists
- Patch Theatre Company
- Performing Arts Centre Society (The Blue Room Theatre)
- Performing Lines
- Polyglot Puppet Theatre
- Pro Musica (Canberra International Music Festival)
- Queensland Music Festival
- Ranters Theatre
- Red Stitch Actors Theatre
- Restless Dance Theatre
- Shaun Parker & Company
- Slingsby Theatre Company
- Snuff Puppets
- Somebody’s Daughter Theatre Company
- Southern Cross Soloists Music
- Stalker Theatre
- Synergy & TaikOz
- Terrapin Puppet Theatre
- The Black Arm Band
- The Performance Space
- The Song Company
- Urban Theatre Projects
- Wangaratta Festival of Jazz
- Yirra Yaakin Theatre Company
Scope of work
Ernst & Young (EY) has been engaged by Live Performance Australia (LPA) to undertake a survey of ticket attendances and revenues for the Live Performance Industry for the 2015 calendar year. The Live Performance Industry encompasses performances, productions, previews and concerts that are performed in front of a live audience. The scope of our work included:
- Coordinating the collection of the ticket sales and revenue data (“Ticketing Survey data”) for the Live Performance Industry in Australia from participating ticketing companies, venues, entertainment companies, event promoters and the Australian Major Performing Arts Group (AMPAG) companies
- Coordinating the collection of the ticket sales and revenue data (“Supplementary data”) for the Live Performance Industry in Australia from small to medium companies (Key Organisations) and regional and metropolitan venues (APACA venue members)
- Compiling the 2015 national survey data on an overall basis, by state and by event category
- Performing an analysis of the 2015 national survey data on an overall basis (and in comparison to previous years), by state and by event category.
This study follows on from the previous annual ticketing studies published by LPA in partnership with EY since 2006.
This report includes data received from participating ticketing companies, venues, entertainment companies, event promoters and the Australia Council for the Arts. In addition to previous year’s reports, the 2015 report also incorporates the ticket attendance and revenue for Key Organisations (via the Australia Council) and a selection of venues that are members of the Australian Performing Arts Centres Association (APACA). This supplementary dataset has been compiled to provide a representation of the small to medium sector, as well as regional and metropolitan (non-capital city) venues. This new data is reported separately to ensure comparability to previous studies.
For this Survey, EY compiled data from ticketing companies, self-ticketing venues, event promoters and the Australia Council for the Arts. These companies were identified by LPA and provided both gross revenue and attendance data to EY for the 2015 calendar year. Gross revenue comprised of revenue sourced from paid tickets only (i.e. it excludes sponsorships); while the attendance data provided and applied in the analysis included both paid and non-paid tickets. Average ticket price data was calculated based on paid tickets only. Further, as part of these guidelines, the ticketing companies and venues are requested to exclude from their data all events produced or presented by the AMPAG companies. This is to avoid double counting of revenue and attendance data. For these AMPAG companies, the gross revenue includes both single ticket sales as well as subscription revenues.
EY also compiled data from the Australia Council for the Arts (Key Organisations) to collect revenue data for small to medium companies and the Australian Performing Arts Centres Association (APACA) to get a clearer representation of regional and metropolitan venues. The organisations and venues identified by LPA provided both gross revenue and attendance data to EY for the 2015 calendar year. Gross revenue comprised revenue sourced from paid tickets and subscription revenues (i.e. it excludes sponsorships); while the attendance data provided and applied in the analysis included both paid and non-paid tickets.
Ticketing data was assigned by the ticketing companies, self-ticketing venues and the Australia Council to event categories based on the guidelines established between LPA and these organisations. Table 1 presents a description of these event categories. Further, as part of these guidelines, the ticketing companies and venues are requested to exclude from their data all events produced or presented by the AMPAG Companies. This is to avoid double counting of revenue and attendance data.
|Ballet and Dance
|Traditional forms, Ethnic dance, Folk dance, Ballet, Ballroom, Latin dance, Liturgical dance, Modern dance, Ballet, Tap, and Breakdancing
|Live entertainment for children, Interactive performances for children and Workshops for children
|Circus and Physical Theatre*
|Physical Theatre, Circus and Burlesque
|Any of the following in classical/contemporary art (i.e. current, but not ‘pop’) style: Orchestral music, Chamber music, Choirs and choral music, Recitals, and Singing/playing. All styles of the following: Sacred music and Traditional music/ethnic music/world music
|Stand up, comedy performances (but not Comedy plays)
|All forms of the following, performed by any type of ensemble or soloist (including any ensemble/chorus/solo musicians advertising a program which is exclusively one of the following categories, e.g. ‘pop’ or ‘jazz,’ as in The Australian Jazz Orchestra): Pop, Jazz, Blues, Country, Rock, Folk, Soul, R&B, Techno, Hip hop, Rap, Heavy Metal, and Electronic Dance Music
|Festivals/events which contain a number of different types of events which fall into two or more categories
|Festivals/events which contain a number of events but which fall into one category only
|Staged productions which include music/drama/movement in popular form, primarily (but not limited to): Musicals and Cabarets in cabaret mode/style
|Theatrical presentations in which a dramatic performance is set to music in classical or contemporary art style: Opera and Operetta (includes Gilbert and Sullivan)
|Unique presentations which do not fall into any other category
|Script based theatre, Drama, Comedy theatre, Mime and Plays
*These categories were introduced in 2009
^This category was renamed in 2011, having been named “Non-Classical Music” in prior years
Survey participants provided data to EY directly. Confidentiality Deeds were in place between data providers and EY where requested. As such, and consistent with our agreed approach, EY did not reveal, insofar as possible, disaggregated raw survey data or event specific revenue or ticketing data to LPA.
While our scope of works did not include a detailed review of all data to determine the appropriateness of the events and event category allocations, where obvious anomalies were identified, appropriate amendments were made. Examples of such anomalies included for instance:
- Sporting events, fashion festivals, workshops, cinema screenings, award nights, graduation ceremonies, theme park passes and art exhibitions were identified in some data sets. These were excluded as they are not considered part of the Live Performance Industry.
- Royal Melbourne Show included in Special Events was excluded as this was not considered to be part of the Live Performance Industry.
- Amateur events such as school performances, dance academy concerts and other community group performances were excluded as the scope of this Survey does not include amateur performances.
- Music festivals included in Contemporary Music were reallocated to Festivals (Single-Category).
- Comedy events included in Theatre or Festivals (Single-Category) were reallocated to the Comedy category.
- Circus events included in the Theatre, Special Events, or Children’s/Family categories were reallocated to the Circus and Physical Theatre category.
As with previous studies, data on ticket revenues and attendances for the Live Performance Industry was limited to that provided by the Survey participants. The following sections highlight the key limitations in data collection.
Ticketing Survey data
Attendances at festivals are under-reported in this Survey. First, some festivals maintain their own ticketing systems and many of these are not part of this Survey. The inclusion of ticketing data from Oztix, MONA FOMA and Dark MOFO addresses some under reporting in the festival categories. However, revenue and attendance are likely to be undervalued in the category because a number of boutique festival events are self-ticketed and are presently not contributing data to the Survey, including music festivals such as Listen Out, Harbourlife and Strawberry Fields.
For a number of festivals, the Survey only reports paid tickets and does not include the substantial unpaid and/or unticketed components. The Contemporary Music category is subject to similar limitations; as pub and club venues that self-ticket, or use ticketing companies who are not part of the Survey are not included in the results. However, data from Oztix and The Ticket Group helps to decrease the level of under-reporting, as these ticketing agencies include smaller performances at certain bars and hotels. Still, this Survey provides a conservative estimate of the total ticket revenues and attendances sourced from live performance events in Australia.
As part of our analysis, the 2015 data was compared against historical data sourced directly from Live Performance Australia’s Live Performance Industry in Australia 2006 - 2014 Reports. EY notes that we did not revisit the data collection and allocation methodology used in 2006 and 2007 as the historical data used to prepare the reports in these years was not provided in a disaggregated format. As such, EY was unable to query the accuracy of the allocation of events in these years.
Therefore caution should be applied when comparing data from 2008 to 2015 with data from previous years as inconsistencies may exist in the data collection methodology between the surveys performed in these seven years, and for previous surveys (where more detailed event specific information was not requested).
The 2015 report incorporates the ticket attendance and revenue for a selection of Key Organisations (via the Australia Council) and ticketing data from venues that are members of the Australian Performing Arts Centres Association (APACA). This supplementary dataset has been compiled to provide a representation of the small to medium sector, as well as regional and metropolitan (non-capital city) venues. This new data is reported separately to ensure comparability to previous studies.
It is important to note that the data included is not a comprehensive survey of regional and metropolitan venues, as only 45 APACA member venues out of a total of 108 non capital city member venues provided data. This includes a mix of small and large regional and metropolitan venues. Whilst attempts have been made to remove data that was previously captured in the data provided by major ticketing companies, self-ticketing venues, event promoters and Australia Major Performing Arts Group (AMPAG) companies, it was not possible to match individual performances as the regional and metropolitan data provided was aggregated at the venue level.
Changes in the 2015 Ticketing Survey compared to prior years
EY have made the following changes to the 2015 survey compared to previous years.
The inclusion of venue capacity data measuring the average venue utilisation per performance (attendance per performance /venue capacity) for selected ticketing companies, self-ticketing venues, event promoters and Australia Major Performing Arts Group (AMPAG) companies
- The inclusion of data from a number of providers since 2014 including:
- Brisbane Powerhouse, which included events across most categories
- Hayes Theatre Co, a Sydney-based venue predominantly presents small-scale musical theatre and cabaret
- MONA provided ticketing information for MONA FOMA and Dark MOFO in the category of Festivals (Multi-Category) as well as some smaller events in the Contemporary Music and Special Events categories
- Oztix provided ticketing information for events in most categories, with an emphasis on Contemporary Music and Festivals (Single-Category).
Fringe Tix (Adelaide Fringe Festival), Fringe World and Bluesfest were new ticket providers in 2013, somewhat addressing the under reporting in the festivals categories.
- The Non-Classical Music category was renamed to 'Contemporary Music' in 2011. However, the scope of performances in this category remains the same as prior years.
- The Melbourne Recital Centre and The Ticket Group (formerly Foxtix together with Moshtix) were new data providers in 2011. Melbourne Recital Centre provides ticketing services primarily in the categories of Classical Music and Opera while The Ticket Group operates primarily in the categories of Festivals (Single-Category) and Contemporary Music.
- In 2009, the 'Comedy' and 'Circus and Physical Theatre' categories were introduced. As defined in Section 1.2 under our Approach, the Comedy category includes all comedy events such as stand up but does not include comedy plays, while the Circus and Physical Theatre includes Circus, Physical Theatre and Burlesque events. The introduction of these categories does not represent an extension of the scope of the Ticketing Survey, rather events which fall within these new categories would have been included in other categories in prior years.
- The inclusion of data from Arts Projects Australia. Arts Projects Australia from 2009 onwards provided ticketing data for WOMADelaide, a multi-category festival in Adelaide previously not covered by this Survey. Also in 2009, data from The Arts Centre (Melbourne) was included for the first time, having previously been outsourced to Ticketmaster (and therefore included in Ticketmaster's data).